Warping is a behavior of plastic caused by material shrinkage due to rapid temperature variations. Materials that tend to shrink are for example ABS and PC.
Photo below shows the same model but left one have warping defect.
Here are some tips for reducing the amount of shrinkage:
1. Stable Temperature in the Printer Chamber
The most important thing is not to allow the print to cool down too fast. To achieve it, always print with your covers on and disable or remove add-on fans.
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2. Heated Bed
Since the warping is a side effect of shrinkage, using the heated bed will help to maintain the temperature of the lower layers of the print thus leading to reduced warping. While working with material like ABS, the heated bed should be set to 100°C, when no other adhesion medium is being used.
3. Adhesion Medium
Use pastes, sprays and self-adhesive surfaces like "BUILDTAK" to increase the adhesion helps to make the first layer stick better to printing surface.
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4. Leveled Bed
A well levelled bed, which is parallel to the X-Axis will help to make you first layer stick nicely. A variation in spacing between the nozzle and the bed will cause differences in path width and layer height on the same layer. These differences disturb adhesion and will contribute towards warping.
5. Adding Rafts and Brims
Once you have the hardware set to the optimum positions , there are also a few software tips that can be applied The Voxelizer software has a built-in feature which adds power rafts and brims to the generated gcode.
A brim is a feature that stretches the base layer of the print by a selectable width, adjusted in advanced options.
Image above shows the first layers of the same model, the right hand one has an additional brim applied.
Stretching the bottom layer in this way makes the printing area of contact larger, which gives better adhesion to the bed.
The only disadvantage of using the brim is that you will need to remove the additional material from the base layer of your model.
- Power Raft
Power Raft is based on creating a level base of your filament material as layers under your print. This feature not only improves the adhesion but also slightly corrects any minor mis-leveling of the bed. You will also need to remove the excess material after the print.
Image above shows the first layers of the same model, the right hand one has an additional power raft applied.